太阳2

建筑施工生產過程中的現場安全如何管理?
編輯:太阳2     發布時間:2020-9-15

  在我國的現代化建設中,土木工程業越來越成為國民經濟發展的支柱產業。同時,隨著社會和科技的發展,建筑物的規模、功能、造型和相應的建筑技術越來越大型化、復雜化和多樣化。太阳2表示所采用的新材料、新設備、新的結構技術和施工技術日新月異,節能技術、信息控制技術、生態技術等日益與建筑相結合。建筑業和建筑物本身正在成為許多新技術的復合載體。建國60年來,我國的土木工程建設取得了巨大成就,特別是近年來的發展極為迅猛。新的高樓大廈、展覽中心、鐵路、公路、橋梁、港口航道及大型水利工程在祖國各地如雨后春筍般涌現,新結構、新材料、新技術在大力研究、開發和應用中。發展之快,數量之巨,令世界各國驚嘆。高層建筑不僅越建越多,越建越高,而且其結構體系及布置形式也日趨多樣化。框架結構、剪力墻結構、框架-剪力墻結構、框架-筒體結構等體系,巨型結構、轉換層結構、懸挑結構及高層大跨框架結構等體系是目前常見的結構體系。隨著計算機應用的普及和結構計算理論的日益完善,計算結果將更能反映實際情況,從而能更充分地發揮材料的性能并保證結構的安全。人們將設計出更為優化的方案進行土木工程建設,以保證工程質量、縮短建設工期、提高經濟效益。工程環境問題特別是氣候變異的影響將越來越受到重視,城市綜合癥、海水上升、水污染、沙漠化等問題與人類的生存發展密切相關,而又無不與土木工程有關。較大工程建成后對環境的影響乃至建設過程中的振動、噪聲等,都將成為土木工程師必須考慮的問題。從一個施工單位的角度來看,在實際施工中面臨的最直接的問題,一是施工生產過程中的現場安全管理問題;二是施工方與業主以及監理部門的關系問題;三是施工過程中的環境公害問題等,這些都是需要認真對待和合理解決的現實問題。

  1、施工生產過程中的現場安全管理問題

  SHIGONGXIANCHANGANQUANGUANLIZHUYAOBAOKUOCHANGDISHESHI、XINGWEIDEANQUANGUANLIHEANQUANJISHUGUANLILIANGGEFANGMIAN,ZHUYAODUISHIGONGZHONGRENDEXINGWEI、WU、HUANJINGZHUANGTAIYIJUJINGYANLAIGUANLIHEKONGZHI。QIZHONGCHANGDISHESHI、XINGWEIANQUANGUANLIDAIYOUYIDINGDEPUBIANXING,ZHUYAOSHIDUIXIANCHANGSHEBEI、GONGRENDEYIBANANQUANJINXINGGUANLI,LIRUCHANGDISHIFOUZHENGJIE、SHIFOUYOUZHUANRENDINGSHIJINXINGQINGLI,SHEBEIDECAOZUOZHIHUISHIFOUZHENGQUE、ANQUAN,JINRUGONGDIDEGONGRENSHIFOUDAIANQUANMAO、GAOCHUZUOYEDEANQUANZHUANGZHISHIFOUQIQUANDENG。ANQUANJISHUGUANLISHIWEILEBAOZHENGGONGCHENGXIANGMUDESHIGONGANQUAN,YIJUMEIGEGONGCHENGXIANGMUDEBUTONGTEDIANSUOZHIDINGDEANQUANJISHUCUOSHI,CONGJISHUSHANGBAOZHENGSHIGONGDEANQUANXING。XIANZAIJIANZHUGONGCHENGXIANGMUDEJIEGOUXINGSHIBIANHUADUOYANG,SHIGONGFANGFAYEYUELAIYUEFUZA,BUTONGDESHIGONGFANGFASUODUIYINGDEANQUANJISHUCUOSHIYOUYIDINGDEBUTONG。ZHENDUIMUQIANSHIGONGXIANCHANGDEANQUANZHUANGKUANG,SHOUXIANYINGGAICONGYINGJIANSHANGZHUSHOU。ZHUYAOYOUYIXIAJIGEFANGMIAN:

  (1)SHIGONGSHEBEI、GONGJUJIQIJUANQUANZHUANGZHIDESHEJIYUZHIZAO。YISHIYAODALIFAZHANYUGAIJINSHIGONGJIXIE,BAOZHENGSHIGONGJIXIEDEGEXIANGANQUANXINGNENG;ERSHIZHUANYONGSHIGONGGONGJU、QIJUJUNYINGDAIYOUANQUANBAOXIANZHUANGZHI,BINGQIESHIYONGFANGBIAN。LIRUHUNNINGTUQIANGZHISHIJIAOBANJIYINGDANGSHEJIWEIQUANFENGBISHI,DONGLIKAIGUANYUKAIGAIXITONGXINGCHENGLIANSUO,KAIGAISHIBUNENGJIAOBAN,JIAOBANSHIBUDEKAIGAI;ZAIRUDIAOYUNHUNNINGTUHUOSHAJIANGDENGCAILIAOSUOYONGDEDIAODOU,DIAOYUNMOBAN、BANCHENGPINGOUJIANSHIDEDIAOGOU,DIAOJUJUNYINGDAIYOUANQUANBAOXIANZHUANGZHIDENGDENG。

  (2)JIAOSHOUJIADEANQUAN。JIAOSHOUJIADEGANJIANBIXUANZHAOSHIGONGJISHUGUIFANDEGUIDINGLAISHIYONG,JINLIANGSHIYONGBIAOZHUNHUA、ZHENGGUIHUADECHANPIN。CHULEKAOLVJINGJIYINSUYIWAI,YINGGENGDUODICONGANQUANDEJIAODUKAOLV,ZAICAIZHIHEWAIXINGSHANGYOUSUOTUPO。LIRUDUIJIAOSHOUJIAKOUJIANHEJIAOSHOUBANDEGUDING,KEJIAZHUANGZISUO、BAOXIANXIAOHUOANQUANKOUDENGZHUANGZHI。

  (3)GERENFANGHUYONGPINDEANQUANSHEJI。NENGFOUZHIZAOYIZHONGJIANQUANYOUYIDONGFANGBIANDEANQUANDAI,HUOSHISHENGZIYUANQUANDAIJIEHESHIYONG,JIANQUANYOUYOUYIDINGDEGONGZUOKONGJIAN,SHIYONGFANGBIAN。

  (4)SHIGONGXIANCHANGZUIJIBENDEANQUANGUANLISHESHI。GONGDIZUOYEQU、GAOKONGZUOYEYINGCAIQUWEIDANG、ANQUANWANGQUANFENGBI;SUOYOUJINRUGONGDIDERENYUANBIXUDAIANQUANMAO;DINGQIDUISHIGONGXIANCHANGJINXINGQINGLI,BAOZHENGGONGDIZHENGJIE、DAOLUCHANGTONG;DUIZUOYEQUJINXINGDIANZIJIANKONG,CONGGENBENSHANGBAOZHENGSHIGONGANQUAN。

建筑施工生產過程中的現場安全如何管理?

   2、施工單位與業主以及監理部門的關系問題

  SHIGONGDANWEIYUYEZHUZHIJIANMUQIANYEMIANLINZHUXUDUOWENTI。MUQIANXUDUOYEZHUSHIGONGSIZHIHUOXIANGMUJINGLIZHI,ZAIKEGUANSHANGMIANLINDEWENTI,YISHIZAIYEZHUDEGUANLITIZHIFANGMIAN,RUCAIQUAN、RENSHIQUANSHANGDEZEQUANBUQINGERZAOCHENGDUOTOUGUANLI,SHIDEGUANLIXIAOLVJIAODI;ERSHIZAIJISHUYUJINGJIFANGMIAN,YEZHUDEZHUANYEJISHURENYUANRENSHUBUZUHUOSHUIPINGBUGOU;SANSHIBUFENYEZHUDEGONGQIYAOQIUDAIYOUYIDINGDEMANGMUXING、BUKEXUE,RUREZHONGYUXIANGMOUJIERIXIANLIDENG,ZAOCHENGZHILIANGBUDABIAOHUOZAOJIABUHELI。ZAIZHUGUANFANGMIAN,MUQIANWOGUOYIBANDETUMUGONGCHENGJIANZHUQIYEGUANLIBORUO,WANGWANGZHIZHONGSHIRENWUKAITUO,ERQINGSHIRENYUANYEWUPEIXUN。YISHIJIANZHUQIYEXUANZEDELAOWUDUI(FENBAODUI)DADUOMEIYOUZIZHI,YOUDEJISHIYOUZIZHIYESHIGUAKAOXINGZHI,ZHILIANGYISHIBUQIANG。HENDUOSHENGCHANGONGRENWENHUASHUIPINGDI,DADUOWEIJINGGUOZHENGGUIXUNLIAN,QIEGENGHUANPINFAN,GONGZUOSUIYIXINGDA,GEIGONGCHENGZHILIANGGUANLIDAILAIHENDADENANDU。ERQIESHOULIYIDEQUSHI,LAOWUDUI(FENBAODUI)TOUGONGJIANLIAO、NONGXUZUOJIADEXIANXIANGSHIYOUFASHENG。ERSHIJIANZHUQIYEPUBIANYOUZHUANBAOXIANXIANG,YOUQISHIJIJIANRENWUJIAODUOSHI,YOUXIEQIYEJIUZHICHENGLANGONGCHENGGAOZHUANBAOTIGUANLIFEI。SUIRANLAOWUFENBAOSHIYUNXUDE,DANGUANJIANSHIBUNENGYIBAODAIGUAN,BUNENGBUKAOLVFENBAODUIWUGONGRENDEJISHUSHUIPING。SHIGONGDUIWANGWANGSHIYILIUDEBIAOSHU、ERLIUDEGUANLI、SANLIUDEJISHU,ZHONGBIAOHOUDUIZHUYAOFUZERENRUXIANGMUJINGLIYIJIJISHUFUZERENDIAOHUANPINFANHUOBUDAOGANGJIAODUO。ZAIJIANLIGONGZUOFANGMIAN,YISHIJIANLIZHUDIBANDETIZHIJIANSHEBUWANSHAN,RUZHUANBAO、GERENCHENGBAO、RENYUANLIUDONGPINFANDENGXIANXIANG;ERSHIJIANLIDEDINGWEIBUMINGQUE,WANGWANGSHIJIANLIYUCHENGBAORENDEGUANXIBIYUYEZHUDEGUANXIGENGWEIMIQIE,DUIYEZHUBUFUZEREN,CONGERZAOCHENGGONGCHENGZHILIANGDIXIAYUTOUZIDEZENGJIADENG;SANSHIBUFENJIANLIRENYUANSUZHIBUGAOHUOYEWUBUQUANMIAN,HENNANFUQIJISHU、JINGJIDENGQUANBUZEREN。JISHIYOUXIEJIANLIRENYUANJISHUGUOYING,BENKEYIDANFUQIZHILIANGGUANLIJIANDUDEZHIZE,DANYOUYUQIZERENXINBUQIANG,MEIYOURENZHENLVXINGJIANDU、QUANGUOCHENGJIANKONGDEZHINENG,SHIDEYIXIEBUFACHENGBAORENJIFENBAODUIYOULEKECHENGZHIJI。SHENZHIYOUGEBIEDEJIANLIRENYUANSHOUGERENSILIDEQUDONG,YUBUFACHENGBAORENHUOFENBAODUITONGLIUHEWU,ZHISHIGONGCHENGXIANGMUFASHENGLEYIXIEBENBUGAIFASHENGDEZHILIANGWENTI。YEZHU、JIANLIDANWEI、SHIGONGQIYESANZHEJISHIZEQUANFENMINGDEDANTI,YOUSHIXIANGHUZHIYUEDEDULITI,GENGSHIGONGTONGDANFUJIANZHUGONGCHENGXIANGMURENWUDEHEZUOTI。ZAITUMUGONGCHENGGUANLITIXIZHONG,YEZHU、XIANGMUJINGLISHIHEXINGUANLIYAOSU,DANFUZHUTONGLINGZHENGGETIXIYUNZUODEZEREN。YINCI,ZHIYOUNINGJUGEGUANLIYAOSUXINGCHENGYIGEYOUJIDEZHENGTI,CUSHIGEFANGXIEDIAOYIZHI,RANGGEYAOSUDEGUANLIZHEXIANGSHI、ZUOSHI,NULIBAXIANGMUDESHIQINGBANHAO,CAINENGSHIXIANYEZHUDEXIANGMUGUANLIMUBIAO。

  3、施工過程中的環境公害問題

  SUIZHURENMINSHENGHUOTIAOJIANDEGAISHAN,RENMENDUISHENGHUOHUANJINGDEYAOQIUYEZAIZHUBUTIGAO,TUMUGONGCHENGXIANGMUSHIGONGDUICHENGSHISUOZAOCHENGDEHUANJINGGONGHAIYEZHUJIANBAOLUCHULAI。ZHENGRUQITADEGONGYESHENGCHANYIYANG,TUMUGONGCHENGSHIGONGYEGEICHENGSHIDAILAILERIYIYANZHONGDEHUANJINGWENTI,ZHURUFENCHEN、YOUHAIQITI、ZAOSHENG、QIANGGUANG、GUTIHEYETIFEIQIWU、ZALUANDESHIGONGXIANCHANG、GAOKONGZHUILUOWU、DIZHENYIJIQITAOURANSHIGUDENG,DOUBUTONGCHENGDUDIDUICHENGSHIJUMINZAISHENGLISHANGHEXINLISHANGZAOCHENGLESHANGHAI。CONGWOGUOXIANXINGDEYOUGUANHUANJINGBAOHUDEFALVFAGUILAIKAN,JUNDUICHENGSHIZHONGDETUMUGONGCHENGSHIGONGDEGONGHAIWENTIYOUBUTONGCHENGDUDESHEJI。ZHEXIEFALVFAGUIZHUYAOYOU:《HAIYANGHUANJINGBAOHUFA》(1982NIAN)、《SHUIWURANFANGZHIFA》(1984NIAN)、《SHUIWURANFANGZHIFASHISHIXIZE》(1989NIAN)、《DAQIWURANFANGZHIFA》(1987NIAN)、《DAQIWURANFANGZHIFASHISHIXIZE》(1991NIAN)、《ZAOSHENGWURANFANGZHITIAOLI》(1989NIAN)、《HUANJINGBAOHUFA》(1989NIAN)HE《JIANZHUFA》(1998NIAN)DENG。DUIYUCHENGSHITUMUGONGCHENGJIANSHEDECHENGBAOSHANGLAIJIANG,ZUNSHOUZHEXIEFALVFAGUISHIZHIGUANZHONGYAODE。


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